170 Comments

Do Plants and Insects Coevolve? ğŸ¥€ğŸğŸŒºğŸ¦‹


Photo & Video Contributions

Those who are interested in contributing photos or videos can upload them to the Queensland Orchid International Facebook Group.

Excellent or exceptional photos and videos uploaded to the group may be featured here to provide exemplary visual documentations of Flower-Pollinator Relationship and Insect-Plant Relationship.

170 comments on “Do Plants and Insects Coevolve? ğŸ¥€ğŸğŸŒºğŸ¦‹

  1. Co evolution and symbiotic relationships are very common aspects of biology. A very fascinating area of study.

    Liked by 9 people

  2. Hi Sound Eagle,
    You liked a comment I made on the Steve Says blog. I wanted to come over to say hi and introduce myself. Hi, I am Janice.
    This seems like a great site for science lovers. My daughter is into science. I teach history and overlap with science often.
    Nice to meet you.
    Janice

    Liked by 6 people

    • Thank you, Janice, for responding and coming over here. Considering your revelation here and your backgrounds, you and your daughter are very welcome to discover and participate with other readers and followers of this website through various intellectual and creative terrains, as elucidated aplenty in the “About 🛅” page, which is highly recommended to you as it provides an overall introduction to this multifaceted and multidisciplinary website. Please feel free to contact SoundEagle if you (and your daughter) would like to publish quality article(s) on this website.

      Liked by 3 people

  3. There are so many examples in nature of these symbiotic (I think that is the word) relationships that you can easily see how much by design it all is. We have a swan plant in the garden here in Auckland which, as I understand it, is the only plant monarch butterfly caterpillars eat, perhaps another example…although I am not sure what benefit the plant gets from this.

    Also, going a little further than insects, I look at the Tui (NZ bird) drinking nectar from a flax plant and think how the beak is perfectly shaped and sized to fit into the flower buds. There are loads of examples in nature I suppose.

    But where does mankind fit in to this…well…not sure we do…we are kind of embarrassing where ecosystems are concerned.

    Liked by 7 people

    • Thank you for your interest in our article, Graham. It is quite common for insects to eat only a narrow range of plant species. Monarch larvae specialise in plants of the family Asclepiadaceae (commonly called milkweeds). Not all ecological relationships are mutually beneficial; probably the plant does not gain anything from this relationship, except perhaps some help from the adult butterflies in pollination.
      Clear examples of coevolutionary relation ships between humans and other organisms are hard to find. One possible example may be with some strains of gut micro-organisms. Certainly, some of these seem to have important positive effects on human health, but I don’t know to what extent they have become adapted specifically to the environment of the human digestive tract.

      Liked by 7 people

    • Thank you very much, Graham, for reading the post and leaving your comment here. I wonder whether you are an ornithologist by any chance, considering that you mentioned tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae), an endemic passerine (perching) bird of New Zealand, and one of the largest species of honeyeater.

      In symbiogenesis (or endosymbiotic theory), the evolution of eukaryotic cell in animals, plants and fungi could be considered as a case of coevolution to the extent that it began as a symbiotic community of prokaryotic cells or organisms. For example, inside plant cells are DNA-bearing organelles like the mitochondria and the chloroplasts, both descended and coevolved from ancient symbiotic oxygen-breathing proteobacteria and cyanobacteria respectively, and both were endosymbiosed by an ancestral archaean prokaryote, which (co)evolved into the cellular membrane.

      Some scientists, especially those in the interdisciplinary fields of anthrozoology and zooanthropology, may be more inclined to entertain or conclude that the ongoing domestication processes involving humans and animals have been significant coevolutionary forces at work, especially with respect to the development and evolution of human civilization, and to the phenotypic variation and diversity of domesticated animals and pets. By the same token, plants such as wheat, rice and other staple crops and cultivated grasses (including the banana) as well as some hybridized or genetically modified ornamentals and food plants have been dramatically altered even to the point of being sterile or losing their self-seeding ability, their survival relying solely on being cultivated by humans. On the whole, the domestication of animals and plants has caused a rapid shift in the evolution, ecology and demography of both humans and numerous species of animals and plants. Like their human counterpart, these domesticated species have become some of the most abundant and widespread organisms on Earth.

      Liked by 3 people

  4. That’s a very fascinating and detailed post. I’ll have to reread this more closely later.

    Liked by 6 people

    • Thank you, Edmark, for your preliminary comment. Both SoundEagle and the other co-author will appreciate your more detailed reading of, and feedback on, this very special post. Please be informed that you can copiously rely on the internal (sub)heading links and also endnote links to navigate to various parts of this expansive post very quickly and conveniently.

      May you enjoy springtime in Hong Kong excavating even more fun (and surprising) facts as the weather warms up!

      Liked by 3 people

    • Given your penchant for, and excellence in, fact-finding, you are indeed very welcome to include within your forthcoming feedback on this post many fun (and surprising) facts about orchids, (co)evolution and/or any other subject matters discussed in this post.

      The most pertinent and/or awe-inspiring fun (and surprising) facts might eventually be incorporated into the body of this post.

      Liked by 1 person

  5. Thank you for sharing this brilliant article. And thanks for the links as well (I read most of the articles which you have linked). I have learned a lot.

    I have been familiar with the concept of coevolution for quite some time but I didn’t give much thought about it. After reading this article and the linked articles, it made me ponder about this topic more.

    Of course, it’s difficult to prove coevolution but I think that they did occur at some point, we may never know when. Based on the examples that this article has enumerated, it’s difficult to not give coevolution some consideration.

    These links may interest you:

    http://proof.nationalgeographic.com/2015/01/28/the-living-breathing-world-of-borneos-carnivorous-pitcher-plants/

    http://bioblog.biotunes.org/bioblog/2007/10/02/cool-bug-9-acacia-ants/

    Click to access 0121411.pdf

    Regarding specialization, I can relate to that since this is also the case in mathematics. Even specialized fields like Algebraic Topology has many subfields. We may never see the likes of Archimedes and Euler. Perhaps Henri Poincaré and Hilbert were some of the last people who have a great understanding of the different branches of mathematics. Clifford Pickover speculated that the most knowledgeable mathematicians alive today may only know about 5% of the entire corpus of mathematics, though I suspect that it’s a lot less.

    Having so many types of “-ologists” out there cause most people to not care about their research that much because they are too specialized for the “outsiders” to comprehend. As Henry Ward observed, “An expert is one who knows so much about so little that he neither can be contradicted nor is worth contradicting.”

    Liked by 6 people

  6. I have seen few blog sites that have placed this much time and effort into creating an experience that reaches the depth of real sensory stimulation. I commend ALL your effort. Wonderful post!

    Liked by 7 people

    • Hello Dr Jonathan! As the festive season is drawing to a close and February is just around the corner, SoundEagle hopes that you have had a wonderful time celebrating the dawn of 2018 whilst having a great holiday with your family and friends.

      Thank you for your visit and compliment, and for being observant about, and receptive towards, the presentational and experiential aspects of the post, beyond what its diverse and analytical contents convey about the coevolution of plants and insects 🥀🐝🌺🦋. Hence, SoundEagle has good reasons to be truly delighted by your regarding the post to be wonderful.

      Also comparable in quality, expanse and “the depth of real sensory stimulation” is the most recent post, aptly named The Quotation Fallacy “💬”, which can firmly constitute excellent food for thought as well as a splendid guide for living a more examined life. May you find the post as enjoyable as it is edifying!

      Liked by 2 people

  7. […] Do Plants and Insects Coevolve? 🥀🐝🌺🦋 (soundeagle.wordpress.com) […]

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    • Hello Gary,

      Sorry for the very delayed reply. We are glad to have produced a post that you found useful. I have recently looked at your excellent website. You may be interested in some forthcoming posts, to do with environmental issues, evolutionary effects on human behaviours and human responses to the natural world, as well as various posts by SoundEagle🦅 on diverse topics that are already up on this site.

      Liked by 1 person

  8. Thanks for teaching me!

    Liked by 4 people

    • Hello Peter,

      My apologies for the very late response. We are pleased to have produced a post that was of interest to you. I have found that the more I learn about biological organisms and processes, the more I come to appreciate the beauty of their diversity and intricate adaptations. Please consider looking at other posts on this site, and also some forthcoming ones to do with environmental issues, human behaviours and human psychological responses to Nature.

      Liked by 3 people

      • God made them all – all organisms – in their simplicities and complexities. God is behind them all – all happenings – in their endothermicities and exothermicities.

        Like

  9. A comprehensive demonstration that diversity is a source of strength, not weakness, a proven fact which certain modern political and religious creeds seek to sidestep!

    Liked by 6 people

  10. Beautiful examples of something I would not think many people would disagree; indeed, it would be strange, if plants and insects would not co-evolve? i wonder if despite all these arguments, the phylogeny was done on these orchids? DNA sequence can reveal if there is an inter-species relationship or not. if yes, the role of insects is a more favorable factor. Continuing this thought, if flower preparation can be sequenced and the DNA of the same insect can be detected in several different species? Pure speculation of a potential experiment:))
    another comment if on Wiki definition of abiotic factors that cannot be co-evolved since they are not living. Somewhere i read ( sorry cannot provide a ref) about one study of how animals and plants affect abiotic factors and those affecting them back- I do think this have a right to defined as co-evolvolution. but this indeed might spark arguments ( especially from evolutionary biologists:))

    Liked by 3 people

  11. Hi Sound Eagle,
    Look at how much time you put into all this. Quite a compilation! My husband watches many animal shows and my daughter loves science.
    As far as I go, your eagle theme resonated with me. Once, in Alaska, I saw a bald eagle. I’d like to go to Alaska to see bears but I teach and they aren’t visible when I can go.
    You liked a comment I made on Sam’s blog. I wanted to come by to say hi and introduce myself.
    Janice

    Liked by 4 people

  12. I’m thoroughly impressed by your work here. Please pass my appreciation onto SoundEagle. WE have ospreys and golden eagles here in Scotland who send their greetings

    Liked by 5 people

  13. Wowee, what a blog! Very comprehensive. Insects and plants are so tight. As a silly thought-experiment, if insects evolved into the sentient organisms that we became, I can only imagine how influential plants would be in their art and culture, given their primordial co-relationship.

    Liked by 4 people

  14. Interesting thoughts. Mother nature never ceases to amaze. We humans need to take care!

    Liked by 3 people

  15. […] via Do Plants and Insects Coevolve? 🥀🐝🌺🦋 […]

    Liked by 1 person

  16. WOW! One of the most insightful and informative posts I have read to date. I love nature and we all coexist, like it or not. Thanks so much for sharing!

    Liked by 3 people

  17. Reblogged this on By the Mighty Mumford and commented:
    IT IS TRUE–PLANTS AND ANIMALS EVOLVE OR ARE CREATED—TO CHANGE TO MAXIMUMLY INTERACT WITH THEIR ENVIRONMENT, OTHER ORGANISMS…AND RESPOND TO MANKIND’S FORCED MANIPULATION FOR HIS AND HER OWN PURPOSES. INDEED ALL ORGANISMS DO INTERACT IN ONE WAY OR OTHERS! SCHOLARLY AND DEFINITIVE WELL-DOCUMENTED RESEARCH. AND SPECIES DON’T CHANGE INTO OTHER SPECIES—BUT AS HERE, THEY ARE VERY ADJUSTABLE (OR NOT!). 🙂

    Liked by 4 people

  18. A very comprehensive and fascinating affirmative answer to the question posed!

    Liked by 3 people

  19. Dear friend,

    I have nominated you for the “Mystery Blogger Award” – congratulation, my friend 🙂

    For more details:
    https://didisvgp.wordpress.com/2018/07/28/thank-you-for-the-mystery-blogger-award/

    All good wishes
    Didi

    Liked by 4 people

  20. Intriguingly fascinating art and thoughts. It’s different and I thoroughly enjoy unique writings- especially nature. Marvelous, simply marvelous!

    Liked by 4 people

  21. A delightful encyclopedia of knowledge that fed my love of plants, Bees, Butterflies and Orchids.. Remarkable knowledge.. ❤

    Liked by 2 people

    • Dear Sue,
      Belated thanks for your appreciation of our post. I have always found that an evolutionary perspective on living things tends to enhance my appreciation of their wonderful diversity, complexity and compatibility with their living and non-living environment. I hope you will be similarly gratified by other posts on this site, including some planned future ones.

      Liked by 2 people

  22. This is a fascinating article, which I admit took me two days to read. It’s so densely packed with information!

    The fact that Darwin predicted the existence of the Morgan’s Sphinx Moth forty years before it was discovered is poetic justice if I ever saw it. It begs the question, why did the flower’s morphology become so extreme? Surely if the adaptation were to exclude some non-beneficial insect, why didn’t its “nectariferous spurs” stop at 9 or 10 inches? Why did they have to go all the way to 11.5 inches?

    I read through some of the papers you linked to but it’s tricky when you have to look up the definition of every second word haha! Although I didn’t find my answers, I’m grateful that you sent me on such an illuminating adventure. Articles like this open one’s eyes to the world. Thanks.

    Liked by 2 people

    • My apologies for the late reply. Thank you for making the effort to read and understand this article in such detail; I’m sure not everyone would do this! In answer to your question, it is sometimes difficult to deduce why biological structures take the exact form that they do. It may have to do with the fact that natural selection must work with whatever random mutations turn up, even if they are not optimal in terms of function or efficient use of resources. Alternatively, I suppose it is possible that another co-adapted orchid-hawkmoth association, involving different species, may once have occupied the middle ground (in terms of corolla tube and haustellum length) between the one discussed here and shorter, more usual lengths, but that these two hypothetical species became extinct relatively recently, not allowing enough time for the relevant structures in A. sesquipedale and X. morganii to shorten to a more economical length.

      Greetings and best wishes for the new year to both of you

      Liked by 2 people

  23. Hello Dear webmasters and readers;

    Co-evolution is larger than most people guess;

    It concerns all things on earth, and also all material in the universe;

    The whole universe is ONE PROGRAMMED MACHINE running to a pre-defined goal;

    and in each step during this course, human can observe new phenomenas,

    just like in a train we can see so many different landscapes between each differents stations…

    So the important for human to be in harmony with the universe is to observe objectively…

    And good travel for you all ; Dear webmasters and reader…

    Liked by 2 people

    • Thank you for reading our post. It would be interesting to consider the evidence that the universe is evolving according to a pre-determined plan, rather than as a result of an unguided interplay between “chance and necessity”.

      Liked by 1 person

  24. It is a pleasant fancy that humans are evolving to a greater fondness for cute animals and animals are evolving to look cuter to humans!

    Liked by 2 people

    • The recognition of “cuteness” probably evolved because it encouraged the protection and nurturance of offspring, and it is interesting that it can often cross species barriers, especially among mammals. In view of the threat of human-caused extinction that hangs over an increasing proportion of species, it may indeed be advantageous for them to appear “cute” to humans, as this may increase their chances of survival, both as individuals and as species!

      Liked by 2 people

  25. Thank you for this very educational post! You obviously put a great deal of work and research into writing this. I can appreciate that! I think my brain may be bleeding now though…

    Liked by 2 people

    • We are grateful that you have read and appreciated our work! It must contain a lot of new information for anyone not already familiar with this field. Both of us learned a good deal in preparing this post, and are pleased if our readers can also learn something from it, even though it may cost a bit of effort! Best wishes, and hoping that you will also read some of our future posts.

      Liked by 2 people

      • Thank you. The post does contain much information that I was previously unfamiliar with. It is refreshing to find an educational blog about this subjects and I look forward to reading (slowly & with english dictionary at my table) your future posts!

        Liked by 2 people

    • ❀ ğŸžğŸƒğŸ›ğŸ‚ğŸ¦‹ğŸŒ»ğŸğŸŒºğŸœ ❀

      Thank you, Mliae, for your visit, comments and compliment, as well as for recognizing the educational value of this special post. Whilst you passively wait for future posts to be published, you are very welcome to actively visit other educational posts to whet your intellectual appetite. Moreover, if your web browser can run Adobe Flash Player properly as it loads the contents of this website, then you will also be able to play games, solve puzzles and/or see more animations, which may indeed counteract over-exertion and stop your brain from bleeding. Happy February and Happy Exploring those posts!
      Rose Greeting
      Yours sincerely,
      ჱܓSoundEagle🦅

      Like

  26. I do not have time to do this lengthy article justice at the moment. In fact, I,d given up reading within the areas of academics or bordering upon it awhile ago, with the occasional exception of philosophy. But nature, genetics, evolution, Darwinism, and Neo-Darwinism (biology as ideology) are all areas I once was quite taken by. I noted too that you veered off into problems with the current structure of academics midway, and I too read B.V.’s article about why he departed the fold. (BV and I also had some dialog awhile back & he looked at one of my longer essays.) So, I will try and make time to get back to this post for a deeper commentary.

    But meanwhile, I will mention that just last week I was watching one of David Attenborough’s wonderful video essays concerning plant/animal cooperations, and I was struck with an interesting intuition. The species involved were a kind of flower with deeply recessed nectar (I believe a red helliconia) and a specific humminbird with a purposed long curved beak. The relationship between these two were such that the bird fed exclusively upon that flower’s nectar while the flower’s relied exclusively upon that bird’s pollination techniques. An interesting all-your-eggs-in-one-basket evolutionary sidepool. The intuition, which I have not had time to develop and articulate better, had to do with the spiritual cooperation between the generating forces (the “ideas”) behind these two disparate species… how they must indeed have a singular and peculiar spiritual relationship in the world behind the physical. (This is fairly typical for me since I do not limit myself to a materialistic, i.e. exclusively physicalist worldview). Plants physicalized on earth first, before animals. So the external evolutionary story, which restricts itself to the purely physical, cannot explicate the entire story here. There is something to understand from a different angle. I leave it there for now. Hopefully I can return.

    Liked by 2 people

    • Hello Rob,

      Thank you for your attention and thoughtful comments. For my part, I continue to be confident that explanations for biological processes can be found wholly within the physical realm. For example, I do not think that the appearance of two different groups of organisms at different times presents any difficulties for the subsequent development of coevolutionary relationships among some of their members – certain species of the second group to appear may develop ecological relationships with existing members of the first, influencing the further evolution of these and having their own evolutionary development affected by the interaction: it is not necessary for the relationships to begin upon the first appearance of both groups. Further, attempts to model the evolution of long sucking organs in various groups of animals and the corresponding evolution of long nectar-bearing corolla spurs in the flowers from which they obtain nectar have suggested that that this process is explicable in terms of conventional natural selection theory (please see my brief discussion of this and the references cited in this post).

      It seems that your positing of the existence of non-material precursors of organisms in “the world beyond the physical” (and potential interactions among these) bears some relation to the Platonic theory of Forms. When you can find the time, you may like to elaborate upon these ideas.

      Greetings and best wishes for the future!

      Liked by 2 people

      • Hi Craig. Very long discussions seeded with this comment. But at the root of the disagreement is always: physicalism. I will offer simply one observation. It is no less a positing on your part, or the parts of materialists, than what you ascribe to me, when you say I point to extra-material phenomena (or ontology, or even causation). It is absolutely an assumption, a positing, on the part of physicalism that all things, including life forms are 100% explicable, eventually, in purely material terms. So… it is a meataphysical position, not a scientific one. And I can think of no possible scientific experiment (as science, biology, physics and so forth are presently and since the 1600s constrained) which would even address this positing. It is an article of faith. And before 1600 or so, it was not, it was quite the opposite. For my asthetics, better to do science, in hopes of reaching a less biased and more complete knowledge picture of all things, without this assumption at all. Cheers to you. 🙂

        Liked by 2 people

      • Hello Rob,

        I think I can appreciate something of your perspective, although for reasons of faith or otherwise, I continue to seek explanations for biological phenomena in physical terms. I hope you may be interested to read and comment on some future posts, dealing with topics such as innate human mental proclivities and their influences on human treatment of the biosphere, human emotional responses to the natural world, and issues to do with the development of environmentally sustainable economic systems

        Liked by 2 people

      • Hi Craig, yes, sure. I will watch for these future thoughts of yours. The situation between us is not personal — one can always appreciate a fellow inquisitive nature. But as one gets older it is revealed as more and more important to devote one’s time to where priorities lie. For me, I see the physicalist mindset as a key linchpin, which if exposed to a more open perspective, would have the power to release the floodgates currently obstructing human cultural potential worldwide. The materialist conception is deeply insidious; so it is extremely difficult to get most people to admit it is in fact an assumption rather than some obvious default observation. Much of my work is devoted to subtly tugging against this assumption, be it with prose or poetry.

        Interesting what you mention about human proclivities vis a vis the living earth. I do not know if the proclivities you think of are innate — I would initially resist this position. But we certainly are dropping the ball regarding stewardship of our biosphere. I would immediately note that it is quite likely that materialism, as an outlook, again has its fingerprints on this particular issue. If natural resources and species are merely regarded as ‘things’, collations of atoms and sub-atomic particles and so on, then it becomes much easier to approach life from a stance of being inured to the way we treat such things. Would be interesting to see why you feel certain attitudes are innate. I would mention here that if something like evolutionary psychology is involved in the reasoning, I find the contributions and underlying concepts around EP to be extremely suspect.

        Environmentally sustainable economic systems: bravo. Let such systems also include socially and humanly sustainable and I am on board and eager to hear about them. Cheers, Craig.

        Liked by 2 people

  27. What a wonderful informative post and those pictures are so beautiful too!

    Liked by 2 people

  28. Thank you for coming to my blog. But I don’t believe in evolution. It’s a theory. None of it makes sense. As an example, the big bang. They never explain how it came to be. You can’t get something from nothing. Creation makes much more sense. Many things have been proven from the bible. And what hasn’t been proven may have been destroyed or something else. Take care.

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    • Thank you for taking the time to read our post. I hope you will also read some forthcoming posts on this site. Two of thse are to be book reviews that will have little or nothing to do with evolution, but with appreciation of nature and human use of materials throughout history.

      Liked by 2 people

    • ❀ ğŸžğŸƒğŸ›ğŸ‚ğŸ¦‹ğŸŒ»ğŸğŸŒºğŸœ ❀

      Hello! Thank you for your comment. Please be informed that the layperson’s use and understanding of the word “theory” is very different from the same term used in modern science. For your convenience and edification, SoundEagle🦅 has included herein the Wikipedia entry of the term as follows:

      A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can be repeatedly tested and verified in accordance with the scientific method, using accepted protocols of observation, measurement, and evaluation of results. Where possible, theories are tested under controlled conditions in an experiment. In circumstances not amenable to experimental testing, theories are evaluated through principles of abductive reasoning. Established scientific theories have withstood rigorous scrutiny and embody scientific knowledge.

      The meaning of the term scientific theory (often contracted to theory for brevity) as used in the disciplines of science is significantly different from the common vernacular usage of theory. In everyday speech, theory can imply an explanation that represents an unsubstantiated and speculative guess, whereas in science it describes an explanation that has been tested and widely accepted as valid. These different usages are comparable to the opposing usages of prediction in science versus common speech, where it denotes a mere hope.

      The strength of a scientific theory is related to the diversity of phenomena it can explain and its simplicity. As additional scientific evidence is gathered, a scientific theory may be modified and ultimately rejected if it cannot be made to fit the new findings; in such circumstances, a more accurate theory is then required. That doesn’t mean that all theories can be fundamentally changed (for example, well established foundational scientific theories such as evolution, heliocentric theory, cell theory, theory of plate tectonics etc). In certain cases, the less-accurate unmodified scientific theory can still be treated as a theory if it is useful (due to its sheer simplicity) as an approximation under specific conditions. A case in point is Newton’s laws of motion, which can serve as an approximation to special relativity at velocities that are small relative to the speed of light.

      Scientific theories are testable and make falsifiable predictions. They describe the causes of a particular natural phenomenon and are used to explain and predict aspects of the physical universe or specific areas of inquiry (for example, electricity, chemistry, and astronomy). Scientists use theories to further scientific knowledge, as well as to facilitate advances in technology or medicine.

      As with other forms of scientific knowledge, scientific theories are both deductive and inductive, aiming for predictive and explanatory power.

      The paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould wrote that “…facts and theories are different things, not rungs in a hierarchy of increasing certainty. Facts are the world’s data. Theories are structures of ideas that explain and interpret facts.”

      In recent years, even the Catholic Church has had to accept evolution, though on a theistic basis. As for the pitfalls and fallacies of the design argument, visit the following:
      http://www.iep.utm.edu/design/
      http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/evolution/intelligent-design-trial.html

      It will be nearly or altogether impossible to claim or prove that (the theory of) evolution is wrong or invalid, for it has been estimated that if evolution (both macro and micro) were wrong, then more than 99% of all scientific disciplines would be wrong too due to the high degree of cross-collaborations and confluences of data. That is not (just) SoundEagle🦅’s claim; and it is from some scientists who have made the interconnections and stocktaking of disciplines and knowledges. When creationists try to debunk certain parts and/or the whole of the findings of evolutionists or evolutionary scientists, they have cited certain problems with some scientific claims and/or techniques which rely on or are founded on mathematics, measurements, instruments, various disciplines and so on in very interconnected ways, and have been reliably used for a long time. For example, many instruments rely on the veracity and reliability of quantum mechanics, electronics and electrical engineering, which in turn rely on other disciplines such as physics, mechanical engineering, optics and so on… It is a very highly interconnected web.

      By “cross-collaborations” (whether by design or by accident, whether independently or co-dependently, and whether concurrently or not), SoundEagle🦅 meant the cumulative results, benefits and synergies from the convergence of evidence from diverse disciplines and researchers who may or may not be collaborating and/or aware of each other’s findings and activities in the first place; and SoundEagle🦅 also meant that research(ers) on/in evolution and evolutionary sciences have relied and benefited, both directly and indirectly, fertilizations, findings, paradigms and techniques from diverse disciplines. Let SoundEagle🦅 quote Michael Shermer from his essay entitled “A skeptic’s journey for truth in science” as further examples:

      To be fair, not all claims are subject to laboratory experiments and statistical tests. Many historical and inferential sciences require nuanced analyses of data and a convergence of evidence from multiple lines of inquiry that point to an unmistakable conclusion. Just as detectives employ the convergence of evidence technique to deduce who most likely committed a crime, scientists employ the method to determine the likeliest explanation for a particular phenomenon. Cosmologists reconstruct the history of the universe by integrating data from cosmology, astronomy, astrophysics, spectroscopy, general relativity and quantum mechanics. Geologists reconstruct the history of Earth through a convergence of evidence from geology, geophysics and geochemistry. Archaeologists piece together the history of a civilization from pollen grains, kitchen middens, potshards, tools, works of art, written sources and other site-specific artifacts. Climate scientists prove anthropogenic global warming from the environmental sciences, planetary geology, geophysics, glaciology, meteorology, chemistry, biology, ecology, among other disciplines. Evolutionary biologists uncover the history of life on Earth from geology, paleontology, botany, zoology, biogeography, comparative anatomy and physiology, genetics, and so on.

      Rose Greeting
      Yours sincerely,
      ჱܓSoundEagle🦅

      Liked by 2 people

      • A very thorough mini-post that clearly explains the nature of of a scientific theory and outlines the strengths of the theory of evolution.

        Liked by 1 person

      • The fundamental law cannot be overlooked. Dogs remain dogs, cats remain cats, plants remain plants. Those do not and cannot change period. Take care now.

        Like

  29. Awesome post. Thank you for sharing. Blessed are those who see plants and insects coevolve.🐝🌻

    Liked by 2 people

    • We are grateful that you took the time to read our post. You may be interested in others on this site (by SoundEagle alone) and some forthcoming joint posts.

      Liked by 2 people

      • Thank you. I will for sure take a look at the other posts. 🌺🐝

        Liked by 2 people

      • I have written a short poem about the wonderful way a flower and a bumble bee 🐝 co evolve. You may be interested to find it on my blog.
        It goes like this-
        How to tell you
        How to tell you what is sweeter than a drop of honey
        Sweeter than a grain of sugar
        Sweeter than the juice of a strawberry 🍓
        How to tell you
        Nothing is sweeter than your tongue
        Melting like ice in my mouth
        How to tell you what is a flower without a bumblebee
        Or a bumblebee without a flower
        Or….

        Liked by 3 people

      • ❀ ğŸžğŸƒğŸ›ğŸ‚ğŸ¦‹ğŸŒ»ğŸğŸŒºğŸœ ❀

        Thank you, Anita Bacha, for your visit, comments and compliment, as well as for sharing your lovely poem entitled “How to tell youHow to tell you”. In the version of your poem shown in your comment above, SoundEagle🦅 can see that you have spiced up the poem with the two emojis 🐝 and 🍓, which are duly noted and appreciated here.

        Happy May to you very soon and Happy Exploring other posts as you become even more familiar with the many special features and topics presented on this blog! Moreover, if your web browser can run Adobe Flash Player properly as it loads the contents of this website, then you will also be able to play games, solve puzzles and/or see more animations.
        Rose Greeting
        Yours sincerely,
        ჱܓSoundEagle🦅

        Liked by 2 people

      • Happy May to you too.
        I am glad you visited my blog and read the poem ‘How to tell you.’ The illustrating picture was clicked by me in Borehamwood in England. It was in the month of July. I am not too sure the insect is a bumblebee. I observed it and others for a long time with my iPhone ready to catch a picture of the ‘bee’ busy drinking the nectar of the flower in a bush of berries.
        I just love nature and its populace.
        ğŸ¦‹ğŸŒ»ğŸžğŸŒ¸

        Liked by 2 people

      • Thank you for sharing your delightful poem. Did you see the poem “Coexistence” by Cheryl KP in the post? Best wishes.

        Liked by 2 people

      • Sadly I scroll up and down several times I don’t see the poem Coexistence.
        Possibly it’s not loading on my lappie.

        Liked by 2 people

      • The insect in the photo accompanying your poem is certainly a bumblebee, probably Bombus lapidarius or just possibly Bombus ruderarius. SoundEagle has requested me to ask whether you know what the flowers in this photo are: could they be hellebores?
        By the way, you may be interested in SoundEagle’s recent long reply just above your first comment (21st March) explaining what constitutes a scientific theory and why the theory of evolution is soundly based.
        Best wishes

        Liked by 2 people

      • Thank you for the the response Craig. Matter of fact, Borehamwood is a shooting ground that offers family a range of shooting facilities, like clay pigeon etc. I was there with my family to experience gun shooting because it demands focus and concentration.
        On the side walk, I heard the buzzing of bees 🐝 🐝 and I followed them to click pictures.
        I have some more pictures. The bees were very busy devouring what was left of flowers in wild bushes.
        If you wish I can send them to you by wats app or email.
        I thank SoundEagle for his profound interest in the 🐝
        Hopefully we will go clay pigeon shooting again this summer.
        Anita

        Liked by 2 people

      • Hi Craig
        Hi SoundEagle
        I forgot to tell you one important observation I made on the day I clicked the picture of the bumblebee (s).
        We had to protect our ears because of the deafening noise of shooting. Yet the bumblebees and the flowers carried on with their romancing undisturbed by the sound of shooting.
        They were peaceful and happy.
        🌸🐝🌼🐝🌻🐝🌼🐝🌸

        Liked by 2 people

      • Hello Craig, SoundEagle, I have posted a few pictures of our bumblebee(s). Please visit my blog and see ‘Flowering’.
        Happy weekend to you both.
        Anita
        🌸🦋🌼🌻🐝

        Liked by 2 people

    • Hello Anita,
      Loud noises usually have little effect on insects, unless they drown out their auditory communications. I don’t have any personal experience of living bumblebees, as they do not occur in Australia, except for one species that was deliberately (and illegally) introduced into Tasmania in the early 1990s. I like to read accounts of exotic insects and other animals that I have not seen myself. Thank you for sharing.

      Liked by 2 people

      • Hi Craig
        Thank you for the clarification.
        I am truly glad and thankful to you and SoundEagle to learn so much about insects.
        I have posted a few pictures on my blog. Please have a look at my latest post ‘Flowering.’
        En passant, I live in Mauritius and here, there’s no bumblebee.
        We have the honey bee. It’s completely black in color, whereas the bumblebee is black and orange. It also uses its long arms to embrace the flower.
        🌸🐝

        Liked by 2 people

  30. Pretty long post about this very interesting topic…

    Liked by 3 people

  31. Thank you Craig, I now see the poem Co-Existence of Cheryl KP 2017.
    Awesome 🌹🐝❣️

    Liked by 2 people

  32. As I mentioned before the fundamental law states that plants remain plants, insects remain insects and so on. Noting evolves at all that’s why you can’t prove otherwise no matter what so-called science you base your claims on. Take care now.

    Like

  33. I love and sometimes fear the true interconnectedness of it all and how I am stuck to the outcome of what others might be doing, but also thrilled at the glue that binds me to the butterflies and their habitat we saved from being chopped down around the local train station.

    Liked by 2 people

    • My apologies for the very late reply. The interconnectedness of life is an important lesson for all of us, and something that we disregard to our great peril. I am pleased that we share an interest in conserving the fragments of the living natural world that still remain. Thank you for taking the time to read this post; I hope that you will find future posts on this website to be of equal interest.

      Best regards

      Liked by 2 people

  34. The write-up is obviously very interesting, educative since it elucidates the inter-connection between different species and above all well researched. There is a connect between all the creations of the Mother Nature – one is incomplete without other. You have really given everything which essentially keeps the interest of the readers ticking. A must read write-up for information on correlation between all which is created by our CREATOR! Just wonderful to say the least. Regards.

    Liked by 2 people

    • ❀ ğŸžğŸƒğŸ›ğŸ‚ğŸ¦‹ğŸŒ»ğŸğŸŒºğŸœ ❀

      Hello Harbans! Thank you for your comment and compliment, especially with respect to your recognizing the interconnections of all lives on Earth.

      SoundEagle🦅 has already notified Dr Craig Eisemann, the co-author of this post, of your freshly composed comment so that he may give you a reply at his earliest convenience.

      Since you have mentioned twice that you are going to read and comment on the special post entitled “Khai & Khim: For Always and Beyond Goodbye”, SoundEagle🦅 is somewhat caught by surprise that you read and comment on this post first. You must have been very curious about or keenly interested in natural science in general as well as evolutionary biology and ecology in particular.

      Looking forward to interacting with you in the said post published at https://soundeagle.wordpress.com/2019/08/31/khai-khim-for-always-and-beyond-goodbye/
      Rose GreetingYours sincerely,
      ჱܓSoundEagle🦅

      Liked by 1 person

    • Hello Harbans; I am pleased that you found our efforts to elucidate this topic interesting and useful. The intimate relationships between, and the coadaptations of, insects and plants have long fascinated me and others, and I am sure that much remains to be discovered about the interactions between these vast and diverse groups of organisms. It is a tragedy that many of these species may be lost to the earth through human-caused extinction before they are appreciated by or even known to us.
      Please accept my best wishes and invitation to read future posts on this website.

      Liked by 2 people

      • My gratitude to you for your comments. In fact, we humans consider boundaries within which we live and interact an important one and leave all other creations by our Creator thereby losing the proximity of our approach to birds, plants, insects etc. and their inter-connection for enhancing and growth of echo-system which directly and indirectly help the humans. We are on the burning spree the jungles as has been happening in Amazon forests. How many of the species of plants, animals and birds have been lost only the CREATOR knows the best. These are not merely the ones which live overland and what about the ones which live by making burrows or holes for their living places by taking out earth or those birds living in their nests. Or other razing fires or the creatures living in the oceans; which are also dying due to throwing poisonous left-overs after our use in the seas.

        I was brought up in a village which was near the forest area and there we used to go and enjoy every bit of songs which the Mother Nature created for us. I think, that was a good life when I used to run after a cat or dog or a rat, or a parrot, or played with plant like touch-me-not? We have now lost contact with all these and that is why we are suffering the pangs of different diseases which were not there when people used to befriend nature rather than cutting forests for habitation or burning forests for agriculture etc.

        What a life it would be
        if we care not merely for ourselves
        but everything that our Lord has made
        but our greed and ego
        just spurs us to enhance our domain
        at the cost of our fellow creations
        Loving animals, birds, flora fauna
        is always reciprocated
        lets make friend with anything and everything that Nature contains in abundance
        Cherish and enjoy it
        All these will give us eternal joy
        which we cannot get from any materials
        which we enjoy for a moment
        and then forget.

        With regards,

        HARBANS

        Liked by 2 people

      • I much appreciate your heart-felt observations on the destructive results of the rampant and seemingly unstoppable “human enterprise” that seeks to convert ever more of the natural biosphere to human material use. Being in what nowadays is the somewhat unusual situation of again living in the house in which I grew up, I am in a position to see clearly the changes in the climate and in the composition and abundance of the surrounding fauna that have occurred as a result of human activities over a period of more than fifty years. You may also be interested in some forthcoming posts on this site, which attempt to address what is happening to the natural world and to explore some of the innate characteristics of human nature that influence the ways in which humans behave towards the living biosphere.
        Once again, thank you for your interest and support.

        Liked by 2 people

      • My heartfelt thanks for your inspiring commentary.

        Factually, some of us are spoiling the echo-system, thereby spoiling the balance of nature, by so doing, the common man is suffering.

        The contribution of good writers and well-wishers work for the well-being of the Mother Nature thus proving counter-productive. What is happening now in our cities and towns due to pollution impacting our health.

        I shall go through your future write-ups for learning and adding to my knowledge.

        WITH WARM REGARDS

        HARBANS

        Liked by 2 people

      • I hope that our forthcoming posts will be informative and interesting for you, and I look forward to interacting further with you when you have had an opportunity to read them. Please accept my best wishes for the future.

        Liked by 2 people

      • Craig sir thanks a lot for informing me about your next post. I shall visit your blog and add to my know-how about our Creator’s creations which you assiduously research and bring to our domain.

        I heartily reciprocate the wishes. God may bestow you strength and fortitude for educating us still more.

        REGARDS

        Liked by 2 people

  35. I believe so, there is an inherent symbiosis in nature. Balance & harmony is the result, mankind has forgotten we are a part of the whole, do not own anything, but merely stewards of this planet.
    Th mystic Osho used to say, “If there were no trees then birds would not exist, conversely if the birds start disappearing then trees will too”!
    We’re all interconnected. ❤

    Liked by 2 people

    • Thank you for your observations on the relevance of this question to the wider issues you raise.

      The subject of this post is increasingly topical in view of the “insect apocalypse” that is becoming evident in various parts of the world, and the implications that this holds for other forms of life. Unfortunately, the majority of our species seem not to apply their characteristic capacity for empathy and rational thought consistently to the predicament in which we and our fellow inhabitants of this planet are increasingly mired, but often to indulge atavistic, irrational drives and prejudices.

      We hope to consider some aspects of this issue in a forthcoming post.

      Liked by 2 people

  36. two species who co-evolve are like two planets turning around each other, one may seem to turn around the other but both turn around a commun gravity point that may be or may be not inside of one of the planets

    Liked by 2 people

  37. This is an interesting and thought-provoking analogy. For two interacting species, it is quite possible that Species A may have much less effect on the evolution of Species B than the reverse, if Species A is much less significant for the biology of Species B than vice versa. However, it is also likely, as your analogy suggests, that any two significantly interacting species will each have at least a slight effect, through selection pressure, on the other’s evolution, even if this is not readily apparent upon observation of the less-affected species.

    Liked by 1 person

  38. What an interesting and very fascinating post. It’s clear you have such an in-depth knowledge and passion for this subject!

    Liked by 2 people

  39. Really detailed and sound research!

    Liked by 2 people

  40. Coevolution is a common mechanism in nature because it presents many advantages to the organisms (but also comes with strings attached). It’s a way to avoid competition (https://bit.ly/316qlDH), find a niche and coexisit. Your example of V. cornigera avoiding competition because of their relationship with ants perfectly illustrates this. The science is fascinating and very extensive. I am so happy that I have delved so deep into the topic (I don’t know if you are an ecologist or environmental scientist. If you aren’t this is even more impressive!)

    Great job again, SoundEagle 😀

    Liked by 2 people

  41. Saurab Babu, I am glad that you appreciated our efforts! I have studied ecology at undergraduate level (many years ago), but chose insect behaviour and sensory physiology as my field of research, and later moved on to participate in an unsuccessful attempt to develop a vaccine to protect sheep against myiasis-producing blowflies. SoundEagle (who wrote the long introduction to this post) does not have a comparable background in biology, but having already mastered several diverse fields of knowledge, was well able to research and compose this contribution.

    I have visited your website, and am impressed both by your aspiration to provide education in a range of environmental sciences, and by your achievement in creating a diverse and well-presented learning resource. I wish you every success for your vital endeavours in the future.

    Liked by 1 person

  42. You have managed to collect a TREMENDOUS amount of information on coevolution, SoundEagle! I find the relationship between plants and animals fascinating. For me, the beauty of the natural world reflects God’s own. Thank you for the education. Stay safe and well. 🙂

    Liked by 2 people

  43. Wow I love this 😍

    Liked by 2 people

    • We are pleased when we can provide a pleasurable, as well as an educational, experience for our readers. Both authors increased their knowledge considerably in preparing their respective contributions to this post. It was a new departure for SoundEagle, who does not have a formal background in biological sciences, and while I have worked professionally as a biologist, evolutionary biology, although a long-standing interest of mine, was never part of my research.

      We apologize for the fact that many of the images originally included in the Gallery section are currently not available.

      Thank you for your interest in, and attention to, our work.

      Liked by 1 person

  44. Hey, Sound Eagle. Have a blessed rest of the summer!

    Liked by 2 people

  45. Useful content and well written by a maestro

    Liked by 2 people

  46. Another endlessly intriguing post. As I was once upon a time a biology major, the topic of co-evolution holds great interest for me. You, SoundEagle, and Craig Eisemann are excellent collaborators!

    Liked by 3 people

  47. Fascinating. Amber ❤🙏

    Liked by 2 people

  48. This is a very informative post. Thank you for liking so many of my comments.

    Liked by 2 people

  49. It seems as if the answer to the question “Do Plants and Insects Coevolve?” is far from a simple “yes” or “no.” There are many factors to consider and many distinctions to be made in understanding the question and its answer. I appreciate your care and diligence in exploring them.

    Although it may not be apparent from the title, this post also offers a wealth of information for orchid lovers.

    I just wanted to let you know that many of the images are currently replaced by “Image not found”:

    “Orchid (Dracula lafleurii) flower with pollinator flies, Ecuador”

    “King Spider Orchid (Caladenia pectinata) being visited by male parasitic wasp pollinator which is attracted to the flower by faux female wasp pheromone, Australia” (and many subsequent)

    “Pair of marsh fritillary butterflies (Euphydrayas aurinia) resting on a heath orchid flower (Dactylorhiza fuchsii) in the countryside of Devonshire” (and subsequent)

    Liked by 2 people

  50. […] Source: Do Plants and Insects Coevolve? 🥀🐝🌺🦋 | SoundEagle 🦅ೋღஜஇ […]

    Liked by 2 people

  51. A wonderful read, and a thoughtful exposition, much for me to ponder.

    Liked by 2 people

  52. species have hollow thorns and pores at the bases of their leaves that secrete nectar (see image at right). These hollow thorns are the exclusive nest-site of some species of ant that drink the nectar. But the ants are not just taking advantage of the plant they also defend their acacia plant against herbivores.

    Liked by 1 person

  53. What an interesting question. Thanks for making me think!

    Liked by 2 people

  54. Thank you once again for your amazing productivity, creativity and research. Um… what do you do in your spare time? 🙂
    I am horrified by those Orchid hunters. What greed can do!
    Since humans and insects have coevolved, and plants and insects have coevolved, and humans and plants, it seems to me that one could write a pretty good nursery rhyme with this theme.
    🙂
    Bob

    Liked by 2 people

  55. Hello Bob,

    As SoundEagle’s co-author on this post, I am grateful for your attention to our efforts.

    It would be interesting if you could devise a nursery rhyme on your suggested theme and contribute it here.

    I apologize for the unavailability of most of the images that were originally in the Gallery; we have not yet found the time to replace them.

    Best wishes

    Liked by 1 person

  56. This is an extensive and well researched post on co-evolution. There are some really nice examples highlighted in terms of pollination and seed dispersal mutualisms. And a great gallery of resources to draw on for further reading. Certainly leaves open other options for topic areas in the biological sciences – is runaway sexual evolution next?

    Liked by 2 people

    • ❀ ğŸžğŸƒğŸ›ğŸ‚ğŸ¦‹ğŸŒ»ğŸğŸŒºğŸœ ❀

      Dear Prof. Andy Lowe,

      Thank you for taking the time to peruse this post and to compliment SoundEagle🦅 and Dr Craig Eisemann here. Also appreciated is your acknowledgement on LinkedIn that “[t]he nice thing about [this] site is the in-depth treatment of topics”, based on your observation or conclusion on the quality and features that you have so far experienced at the website.

      Circumventing the many restrictions and conventions imposed by academic journals whose contents are often hidden behind paywalls, self-publishing certainly presents numerous advantages, which, when combined with the dynamic nature of a blog post offering contents that can be freely viewed and shared by visitors and commenters, are attractive to the likes of us who have been inveterate teachers and communicators. Accordingly, this post has a tripartite structure comprising 🥀🦋 ❀ Entrée ❀ 🐝🌺, 🌿🐜 ✿ Main Course ✿ 🐛🍃 and 🌻🐝 ❀ Desserts ❀ ğŸžğŸ‚. SoundEagle🦅 is responsible for the Entrée and Desserts, whereas Dr Craig Eisemann for the Main Course.

      SoundEagle🦅 and Dr Craig Eisemann have been cognizant of the missing images for more than a year or two, and will endeavour to resurrect them once a certain post composed by Dr Eisemann is fully formatted, illustrated, animated and published on this website by SoundEagle🦅 later in the year.

      Given your professional background and interest, you are very welcome to make further perusals and comments here as you inspect and ingest the three-course offering to your heart’s content. Furthermore, SoundEagle🦅 is really curious to know what you thought of the digression into a detailed summary of the academic environment and corporate culture facing contemporary scholars.

      This post belongs to the category entitled Facing the Noise & Music, under which the following posts have also been classified and listed in reverse chronological order:

      Happy mid-September to you!
      Rose Greeting

      Yours sincerely,
      ჱܓSoundEagle🦅

      Liked by 1 person

      • Thanks Sound Eagle

        Yes I agree blog posts are good way to get academic ideas out there, but particularly to summarise thoughts for a more general audience. Which can also be an important synthesis of ideas and thoughts, which may be weeded out in the submission of a full academic paper.

        Publishing in the academic literature does however make sure that article are independently referred and so they remain the quality milestone of new work.

        Blog posting and academic literature publishing can and should go hand in hand though.

        Liked by 2 people

      • ❀ ğŸžğŸƒğŸ›ğŸ‚ğŸ¦‹ğŸŒ»ğŸğŸŒºğŸœ ❀

        Dear Prof. Andy Lowe,

        We are more or less in agreement here. Apart from the accessibility of academic works as mentioned earlier, there are many other extant issues that remain to be addressed. Academic papers published in most if not all conventional journals tend to be highly limited in scope, format and feature, mostly presented in monochrome or greyscale and rarely in colour; cannot include large or complicated illustrations, maps, charts, schematics and/or statistics; unable to incorporate audiovisual contents, videos, animations, pop-ups, hyperlinks, comments, revisions, extensions, user interfaces and other real-time, dynamic or interactive components, let alone social media integration; and ill-suited or ill-prepared to deal with highly innovative, interdisciplinary and/or multidisciplinary works, not to mention that there continue to be few or no referees and reviewers qualified or knowledgeable enough to evaluate them properly and cogently without intellectual oversight and bias.

        Let us examine just one example regarding pop-ups. In this website, tooltips, a form of pop-ups, also deliver full bibliographical information. Considering that certain 📑Posts and Pages📃 are very long and extensive, the provision of tooltips as a way of implementing citations using the combination of on-demand, in-situ pop-up references and hyperlinks is a matter of prudence and practicality to dispense with the overly expansive space that would otherwise be required to accommodate a bibliography or reference list whose entries are in the hundreds, which would have made any one of the already lengthy 📑Posts and Pages📃 even longer.

        Other insidious matters regarding conventional publication of academic papers have also been discussed by SoundEagle🦅 in a number of academically written posts. The following are just a few chosen excerpts to highlight some of these matters. The first set is taken from the multidisciplinary book-length post entitled 💬 Misquotation Pandemic and Disinformation Polemic: 🧠 Mind Pollution by Viral Falsity 🦠 published with multipronged analyses under the following categories: Behavioural Science, Cognitive Science, Critical Thinking, Cultural Studies, Environmentalism, Epistemology, Ethics, Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Psychology, Facing the Noise & Music, History, Human Nature, Information Science, Journalism, Logic, Media Studies, Philosophy, Political Science, Psychology, Quotes, Science, Social Media and Social Science:

        Under the influence of the 24/7 news cycle, exaggerated, extravagant or intensive publicity or promotion of newsworthy matters and topical issues is not beyond the pale of scientific circles, especially when incorrect, defective, unethical or fraudulent citation practices coupled with sensationalized press releases lead to incidents of misquotation, misinformation or misrepresentation, even raising false hopes or unwarranted fears and eliciting misguided decisions or unsound investments. Such incidents are becoming much more tempting and prevalent since scientific kudos and academic publishing have become embodied by what can be unenviably described as the citation race, relentlessly fuelled by the publish-or-perish mentality and increasingly benchmarked by scientometric indicators of scholarly output, publishing performance and citation impact, all of which can significantly affect decisions regarding manuscript submissions, academic careers, research funding and journal standings. Accordingly, press releases from scientific journals, research institutions and funding agencies can be very prone to suffering from hyped and substandard reporting.

        The second set is sourced from an equally multidisciplinary but even lengthier post entitled The Quotation Fallacy “💬”:

        … For example, the revered maestri and esteemed colleagues who borrow heavily or cobble together from previous outputs or other sources, and who often publish under the “mini-paper with same data from slightly different angle” approach to maintain a certain research output volume, are more likely to accrue admiration for their veritable “research”, “recycling”, “repurposing” or “(re)creative licence”, rather than condemnation for their “appropriation”, “plagiarism”, “publish-or-perish mentality” or “quantity-over-quality strategy”. Even in the supposedly meritocratic environment of academia, condign punishments or punitive measures are more prone to be less likely or less severe when such transgressors possess high academic status or social standing, and when the research projects involved are deemed to have high visibility, (commercial) value, financial reward, or applicability.…

        Incorrect, defective, unethical or fraudulent citation practices automatically lead to misquotation and misrepresentation in many ways. Such practices are becoming much more tempting and prevalent since scientific kudos and academic publishing have become embodied by what can be unenviably described as the citation race, relentlessly fuelled by the publish-or-perish mentality and increasingly benchmarked by scientometric indicators of scholarly output, publishing performance and citation impact, all of which can significantly affect decisions regarding manuscript submissions, academic careers, research funding and journal standings. To begin with, although citation as an accounting of knowledge sourcing and intellectual honesty is an important metric for academics, it can be easily compromised by attritions whereby citations to online sources become invalid or nugatory as cited webpages become defunct, and by human errors ranging from inconsistent or erroneous use of citation styles or systems, to sloppiness or carelessness of researchers, authors or journal editors in the publishing procedure. Even more sobering regarding both the quantification and impact of citation is that both can be insidiously manipulated and consequently tarnished by conflicts of interest in academic publishing leading to unethical behaviours of both the authors and journal staff, such as inflating journal impact factor whereby up to 30 percent of total citations to some journals are generated by commissioned opinion articles; forming citation cartels whereby certain groups of authors cite one another disproportionately more than they do other groups of authors working on the same subject to artificially boost academic recognition or scientific excellence by mutually increasing the number of their own citations; and practising coercive citation whereby a scientific or academic journal editor forces an author to include spurious or extraneous citations within an article before granting publication, for the purpose of inflating the journal’s impact factor to raise the profile or reputation of the journal. On the whole, the citation race can detrimentally affect the behaviours of scholars, editors and other stakeholders explicitly, and of readers and writers implicitly, leaving behind parlous implications and unresolved issues about the social value of research assessment, whilst highlighting the precarious nature of maintaining intellectual integrity and academic careers.

        There is a decent, illuminating account from a prolific academic by the name of Peter Cameron, who, like you, also maintains a blog. After having decades of experience in academic publication, he has decided to write a detailed summary and stocktaking in a post entitled “Publication: an author’s view”, in which he concludes as follows:

        Some of my papers which have been turned down by journals have stood the test of time and are now among my most cited papers. Back in the days when submitting a paper to a journal meant printing it out and putting it in an envelope with a covering letter, one paper came back from a journal appearing not even to have been taken out of the envelope and unfolded. This paper is now sometimes cited as a pioneering document in the theory of mutually unbiased bases in quantum computing (although we had no idea about this at the time).

        Thinking about all this has led me to a theory. It is the interdisciplinary papers that are most likely to be rejected by journals without proper scrutiny. (The paper referred to above was so interdisciplinary that we felt it necessary to include a “road map” of the concepts discussed.) A paper which is simply an incremental improvement of already known results is more likely to be taken seriously. This despite the fact that journals claim that the opposite is the case. And of course I much prefer finding unexpected links between very different areas.

        Looking forward to be enlightened by your thoughts and experiences on these matters!
        Rose Greeting

        Yours sincerely,
        ჱܓSoundEagle🦅

        Liked by 1 person

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